There are three basic principles to design an effective online course and developing the corresponding online teaching materials:
Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy categorises six stages of thinking skills: Remembering, Understanding, Applying, Analyzing, Evaluating, and Creating. See this figure for the verbs which refer to digital tools and technology that are associated to different levels of thinking skills. It starts from low order thinking skills (LOTS) to high order thinking skills (HOTS). For example, googling and recording are associated to the low order thinking skill of Remembering. Filming and podcasting are associated to high order thinking skill of Creating. For a more comprehensive listing of the verbs, click here.
Substitution Augmentation Modification Redefinition (SAMR) model describes the impact of technology on learning, from low impact (learning is enhanced) to high impact (learning is transformed). The model lists the lower impact on learning, first as directly substituting the current task with no functional change; and second as augmenting the current task with functional improvements. Higher impact on learning is seen at the third stage as modifying the current task to bring about significant task redesign; and the fourth stage as redefining the pedagogy to create new, previously inconceivable tasks. See this figure for illustration of the SAMR model.
Source: Puentedura, R. R. (2013). SAMR: Moving from enhancement to transformation.
For a list of educational technology tools that facilitate different types of learning activities (e.g. animation, collaboration, discussion, mindmapping), click here.
Advances in adaptive learning technologies have now made it possible to redefine pedagogy through personalising the learning experience for each individual student – targeting improvements in weaker areas, helping with knowledge retention and providing feedback that is “just in time, just enough, and just for me.” Adaptive digital learning takes into account current student performance, and adapts accordingly to support, and maximise learning. Find out more about adaptive learning and if your course has a textbook with adaptive features at this link.
Please contact CTE at cte [at] smu.edu.sg for more information.
Community of Inquiry (COI) informs the methodology to deliver successful online learning, by building a community of learners.
The relationship and function of these three components are explained in this figure.
^ Source: Garrison, D. R., & Vaughan, N. (2008). Blended learning in higher education: framework, principles, and guidelines. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
The e-book can be accessed from the SMU Library database. The hardcopy is also available in the Li Ka Shing Library.